The Aim and Achievement of °»LIFE AND HABIT °…
by Takashi Horiuchi

     Samuel Butler continued to write Life and Habit (1878),Evolution, Old and New (1879) and Unconscious Memory (1880) without a break after completing his first novel Erewhon.

     It is said that these three evolution-related books were written in comparison with Charles Darwin°«s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859).

     After reading Charles Darwin°«s book, Butler was deeply moved by Darwin°«s theory of evolution, and respected him deeply. However, he gradually began to have some doubts about the theory, and finally accomplished his own creative theory on evolution, which he called °»unconscious memory.°…

     This paper deals first with how Samuel Butler wrote Life and Habit , and then how the ideas in the book influenced other famous philosophers and psychologists in the 20th century.

Key Words: Samuel Butler, Life and Habit, evolution, unconscious memory